Educational Competencies The educational mission of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine is to train students to understand and embrace their future roles as physicians. Central among these are the roles of healer and scientist. Caring for patients requires recognition of each patient’s individuality, as well as comfort with the uncertainty inherent in this experience. With the well-being of the patient as the focal point of all our educational efforts, students will learn to participate in the scientific endeavor of medicine, to develop into critical thinkers, and to further our understanding of health promotion and disease management. We expect all Einstein graduates to demonstrate competency in the following seven areas: healer, scientist, advocate, educator, colleague, role model, and life-long learner.The objectives for all Einstein courses and clerkships are linked to the Einstein competencies. A. PHYSICIAN as HEALER COMPETENCY Students will demonstrate effective clinical, diagnostic, and communication skills, cultural sensitivity, and empathy, in accordance with each patient’s needs and in a partnership with each patient. Students will recognize that professional development in this area requires becoming comfortable with uncertainty and cultivating humility (including cultural and structural humility) in light of the vast breadth of human experience they will encounter. Sub-competencies A1. Gather essential and accurate information about patients and their conditions through history-taking, physical examination, and the use of laboratory data, imaging, and other tests. A2. Recognize and respond effectively to patients’ verbal, non-verbal, and contextual cues. A3. Demonstrate an understanding of how bias (including implicit bias and microaggression) negatively affects interpersonal encounters and patient outcomes, as well as a commitment to managing one’s own biases. A4. Use and articulate a systematic approach to clinical diagnosis; initiate and adjust an appropriate diagnostic and management plan while recognizing how bias affects judgment and decision-making. A5. Develop a patient centered plan that incorporates a patient’s unique personal circumstances (e.g., health beliefs, economics, disability, culture, faith, spirituality) and addresses the impact of structural factors (e.g., racism, social determinants, social history, public policy) on health outcomes. A6. Demonstrate empathy and build trust by providing trauma-informed care that gives comfort and support to patients and loved ones, acknowledging the mistrust emanating from historical injustices. A7. Express gratitude toward patients and communities for providing students with experiences that deepen their humanism and facilitate their professional development. B. PHYSICIAN as SCIENTIST COMPETENCY Students will acquire, appraise, and apply knowledge of biomedical, clinical, psychosocial, epidemiological, and population health sciences as the foundation for all their endeavors. Students will understand the critical role of research in these domains in enhancing the health of individuals and populations. By participating in scholarly investigation regarding patients of all races, ethnicities, biological sex and gender identities, abilities, and backgrounds, students will work to advance scientific knowledge and master principles that can be used to improve health and health care. Sub-competencies B1. Demonstrate knowledge of the range of normal structures and functions of the body and its organ systems, and the underlying molecular, genetic, biochemical, and cellular mechanisms of homeostasis. B2. Demonstrate knowledge of congenital and acquired causes of disease, dysfunction, and disability, and the underlying pathophysiology. B3. Recognize that race is a social, not biological, construct and that racism, rather than race, causes both individual and population-level health disparities. B4. Analyze the impact of behavioral, social, and structural factors (e.g., racism, racial inequity, poverty, environment, nutrition, public policy) on the health status of diverse patient populations, recognizing the impact of historical oppression and exploitation. B5. Apply knowledge of science and the scientific method to characterize the quality of evidence, and critically evaluate scientific and medical literature, as well as gaps in the literature stemming from the ways in which diverse populations are understudied or mistreated. B6. Discuss how scientific and medical discoveries can be translated and applied to improving the health of individuals and diverse populations, including local and underserved communities. C. PHYSICIAN as ADVOCATE COMPETENCY Through knowledge of the health care system, skill development, hands-on service, and leadership experiences, students will demonstrate the knowledge and skills to advocate for health care that is high-quality, safe, efficient, just, and equitable for individual patients and diverse populations, especially those that are marginalized, oppressed, and/or underserved. Students will recognize the need for continued efforts towards greater social and racial justice in the healthcare system. Sub-competencies C1. Analyze past and present health care policies, economics, and financing and discuss their implications on individual patients, communities and populations, recognizing the ways these policies have adversely affected the health of marginalized communities. C2. Describe the privilege associated with being a physician and the mechanisms that enable physicians to be change agents who advance health care towards a value-based system that is high-quality, safe, efficient, and equitable for diverse populations of patients. C3. Advocate for the broad-range of their patients’ healthcare needs, including those stemming from social and structural determinants of health. C4. Apply knowledge of the principles of patient safety, quality improvement, and systems science to ensure quality care for all patients. C5. Identify and partner with relevant stakeholders within communities to understand their health care needs and how to best serve those needs, utilizing effective communication strategies. D. PHYSICIAN as EDUCATOR COMPETENCY Students will apply educational principles to facilitate effective learning and promote well-being among patients, families, and communities. Students will demonstrate the ability to effectively teach their peers, colleagues, and other health professionals in clinical practice, basic science, and translational medicine. Sub-competencies D1. Employ appropriate methods, including patient-centered and culturally responsive communication skills and techniques, to educate patients and families to adopt and sustain healthy behaviors. D2. Contribute to a supportive, inclusive, and stimulating learning environment. D3. Utilize effective teaching techniques, including professional presentation skills, tailored to the number and type of learners, the setting and context, and the educational objectives. D4. Provide effective and constructive feedback to learners, peers, colleagues, and teachers. D5. Recognize and reflect on the importance of respecting patients’ rights with balancing educational needs in the clinical educational setting. E. PHYSICIAN as COLLEAGUE COMPETENCY Students will work collaboratively as members of medical, scientific, and educational communities. Sub-competencies E1. Demonstrate a recognition of, and respect for, the roles and contributions of the various members of interdisciplinary and interprofessional teams including the perspectives offered by individuals of diverse demographic backgrounds. E2. Demonstrate the interpersonal and leadership skills to work collaboratively and inclusively with individuals and teams, such as (but not limited to) peer settings, research and clinical environments, and/or care transitions. Recognize how bias occurs and develop the skills to manage conflict and bias (e.g., macro- and micro-aggressions) such as speaking out as upstanders against biases and their impact. E3. Demonstrate effective oral and written communication skills with colleagues of all professional backgrounds. E4.Consider and acknowledge diverse perspectives in appraising alternative approaches to problem solving and in collaborative decision making. F. PHYSICIAN as ROLE MODEL COMPETENCY Students will act in accordance with the highest levels of ethics and professionalism in all realms, including clinical care, research endeavors, advocacy, education, and general behavior as a member of society. Students will serve as role models for individual patients, colleagues, and society at large. Students will demonstrate dedication to their personal and professional development, including ongoing self-care, self-awareness, and self-reflection to sustain their commitment to core humanistic principles and service. Sub-competencies F1. Consistently demonstrate professional, respectful, and responsible behavior. F2. Apply ethical principles in all aspects of patient care, research, and education. F3. Demonstrate accountability to patients, colleagues, society, and the profession. F4. Treat all patients, colleagues, and community members equitably and respectfully no matter how they self-identify or how others may perceive them (e.g., age, race, ethnicity, country of origin, disabilities, sexual and gender identification, religion, political perspective, economic background, physical appearance, and legal status), acknowledging potential past mistreatment. F5. Acknowledge the value of self-awareness, self-care strategies, and appropriate help-seeking behaviors to manage stress and to navigate personal and professional responsibilities. G. PHYSICIAN as LIFE-LONG LEARNER COMPETENCY Students will recognize that learning is a life-long endeavor. Not only does scientific knowledge continually advance, but the methodologies, modalities, and technologies available to learners are ever-changing. Students must learn to critically assess new research and clinical innovations, as well as apply evidence-based and structurally competent recommendations. Effective life-long learning requires that students engage in ongoing self-assessment and receive comprehensive feedback from external sources to identify personal knowledge gaps and to maintain enduring commitment to best practices. Sub-competencies G1. Recognize that evidence-based medicine and practice standards are continually evolving, requiring an ongoing commitment to staying current with best medical practices. G2. Recognize the need to adapt clinical and research practice by incorporating emerging technologies. G3. Identify and correct gaps in knowledge, skills, and performance through self-reflection and feedback from others. G4. Identify professional interests, strengths, options, and opportunities to guide career planning and development.